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How is China’s Belt and Road initiative transforming Mongolia? | The New Silk Road | Full Episode

Mongolia. A land of grasslands
and endless sky. A rugged people whose ancestors
once conquered the world. Against its illustrious past, Mongolia nowadays struggles
with a much more basic and urgent priority. Rescuing its economy. Some leaders believe the future lies
by connecting to China’s Belt and Road. Mongolia is a landlocked country, so this would us give an opportunity
to expand our connectivity, to building, improving
and developing infrastructure. Others maintain
a deep distrust of China. Anti-Chinese sentiment
still runs strong. Sandwiched between Russia and China, Mongolia will now be the connector on a major Belt and Road
economic corridor. Amidst debate over the role
of China in mining, environment, and finance, what is the way forward
for Mongolia? A Belt and Road Initiative
linking China and Russia has sparked celebration and concern. Rival powers, Russia and China… Russia and with China… Russia or China… In my journey along
the road to Russia, I will visit China’s border cities
with Russia. This entire city is lit in gold. I will discover the splendours of Mongolia
with its untapped riches, -It’s like a house on wheels!
-Yes! mysterious Uzbekistan
through its stunning cities, and I will explore the Kremlin
and the power it wields. This is my journey through one of
China’s key economic corridors on its Belt and Road. Genghis Khan may have been dead
for 800 years. But his legacy is very much alive
in modern Mongolia. Popular music, like this hit song
from Mongolian band “The HU”, references the great Mongol empire. And in the nation’s capital city,
the Khan’s honour looms large. The Great Khan sent his armies
across deserts and mountains in the 13th century. The empire covered almost all of Asia, and even some of Europe, controlling far-off territories
in what is now Beijing, Myanmar, Kazakhstan, and Iran. To say that Mongolians are proud
of Genghis Khan and the warrior heritage is an understatement. They’re quick to remind everybody
that the Great Wall of China was built to protect the Chinese
from a Mongol invasion. That, and also the fact that
the Mongols’ rule over all of China, lasted for over a hundred years. That was in the 11th century,
during the Yuan dynasty. The ancient Silk Road is famous
for transporting treasures, traded between the East and West. It flourished during Mongol rule. But when the empire declined,
the Silk Road quickly became dust. Today, with the revival
of the Silk Road, Mongolia-China relations
are now entering a new chapter. But history will always
colour perceptions, and here’s a quick overview
of modern-day events to understand
Mongolian-China relations. There is Mongolia,
a sovereign nation, and Inner Mongolia,
which is located in China. Here’s a simplified history
of how two Mongolias came to be. China ruled Mongolia for
more than 200 years until 1911. On that year, Mongolians
declared independence from its Chinese
Qing dynasty overlords. The move was backed
by the Soviet Union. China didn’t agree,
and soon, it was all out war. In 1921, the Soviets drove the Chinese
out of Outer Mongolia, and Mongolia became
a Soviet satellite state. The Soviet Union reinforced
Mongolia’s defences, and also supported it economically
with a subsidy estimated at 37%
of the country’s GDP. The Soviet collapse in 1991
brought democracy to Mongolia, breaking the country free
of Soviet control, and resulting in the full withdrawal
of Russian troops by 1992. But that independence
came alongside the collapse of the Moscow-led economic system. Since then, Mongolia has been
increasingly dependent on China. Today, about 90% of Mongolian
exports go to China, and over 40% of Mongolian
imports come from China. The two countries
continue to share a border of over 4,700 kilometres. For a landlocked country
that borders two great powers, China and Russia, geopolitics is a fact of life, and there are deep implications
for Mongolia’s economy. In recent times,
there has been a global discussion about China’s Belt and Road Initiative
and “debt-trap diplomacy”. Analysts all over the world
have pointed out that Mongolia is one of eight countries
to be at risk of this debt trap. But why has Mongolia
borrowed so much from China, and what has it spent it on? What does the term,
“debt trap”, mean for ordinary Mongolians
and their daily lives? I’ve been told there is one place
I can go to find some answers. This is Mongolia’s slum district
in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. There’s no access to water,
and spotty access to electricity. What sets it apart from the
other major slums in the world are these “gers” or tents. These gers are the traditional houses
of the nomadic Mongolians. Only now, instead of seeing these
in the great open grasslands, you find them here, housing the nation’s
internally-displaced rural folk. They make up half of the
capital city’s population. That’s about 800,000 people. The Ger district has become the most
pressing social crisis of Mongolia. Hi, I’m Anthony, nice to meet you. How many of you live here? I see. Hello! Losol Marush used to be a herder, living in the great
Mongolian steppes. But Losol’s life,
like many others here, has been hard hit by climate change. He and his family moved here after a weather phenomenon
known as the “dzud”. The dzud is an extreme
winter condition with temperatures dropping
to -50 degree Celsius and thick snow
covering the grasslands. The dzud phenomenon has killed
more than 20 million animals since the start of the 2000s. It isn’t just lethal to the animals, it is killing off
an entire way of life. With his animals dead,
Losol can no longer live in the steppes, and so, he took a leap of faith, and moved his family here
to the capital city, Ulaanbaatar. Losol, and practically
all of his neighbours, are hapless victims
of climate change. Thousands of former herders
arrive every year, requiring electricity, heating,
medical services, education, and most importantly, jobs. And all of that costs money. In part, to deal with the challenges
of the Ger district, Mongolia has had to borrow
huge sums from China for housing projects, roads, electricity plants,
wastewater treatment plants. And quite a number of these projects have fallen under
the Belt and Road Initiative. Losol Marush and his family have personally felt
the impact of these projects. He now works as a cement truck driver
for a construction company, and has made enough money
to buy his kids smartphones. I think you’re getting there. You should definitely
spend more time playing this than playing games on your phone. The infrastructure spending
that employs people like Losol has cost Mongolia billions. And the government of Mongolia
has come under fire for falling prey to
China’s so-called debt trap. Lhagva Erdene is
a Pulitzer Prize winner, and a renowned journalist
in Mongolia. He has covered stories on
Mongolia’s foreign policy for a decade. Obviously, the government has had
to borrow money from China to build roads and grow the economy. But is there also a concern that
Mongolia might be facing a debt trap? What are your thoughts on this? Mongolian debt-to-income ratio… at our state budget level has exceeded the budget law for years now. There are concerning
reports of China using the Belt and Road Initiative to aggressively
advance their policy, and there’s a track record of that. There are media reports by Quartz, and Belt and Road research centres,
different think tanks, mostly from the
Western part of the world. There are opposing views in Mongolia,
I think it’s a very divided issue. So there’s no clear view
on whether it’s a debt trap or not? It depends on whether you see it… as a debt because the Mongolian word for “loan”
actually translates as “debt”. So, taking a loan from a bank, financing your house, getting a loan for your kids
to go to college, all translates to mean
“burden” in Mongolia. As debates raged around how to deal with
Mongolia’s heavy borrowing from China, crisis hit the economy. Mongolia. Only recently, this was the darling
of emerging markets. Mongolia once made headlines
as the world’s fastest growing economy, expanding at 17%. That was in 2011,
during the last commodities boom. But the fun times
came to an abrupt stop when commodities crashed in 2015. Around the same time, China launched
the Belt and Road Initiative. So, when invitations
were extended to Mongolia to sign into the Belt and Road, the Mongolian government
needed little convincing. For an overview of the specific plans
from the Mongolian viewpoint, I’ve come to the seat of government. Can you tell me how Mongolia
plans to participate in the Belt and Road Initiative? Mongolia has two neighbours. We could become one of the best, the shortest, and maybe the most
economical transit hub between Europe and Asia, between Russia and China. One of the key components for that is the improvement
of railroad connections. Many infrastructure
development projects are on the list of projects
to be implemented to increase the connectivity
and transit ease between the three countries. Under BRI, the number of China-Europe
freight trains travelling through Mongolia increased by well over 50% in 2018. And Batbold is upbeat
about future prospects. Do you think that the Belt and Road
Initiative can turn Mongolia into an international logistics hub? Yes, this is the one of
the most important… targets for Mongolia. And through our neighbours, we can also achieve better connectivity
with the rest of the world. For instance, we are in talks with
both our neighbours about transit-freight agreements. And we are discussing special
agreements with certain ports, such as Vladivostok in Russia, and the port of Tianjin in China. Working with those ports
will provide better access and connectivity. The Mongolian economy is
highly dependent on mining exports. Mongolia has gold, copper,
lithium, uranium and coal, in some of the biggest
mines in the world. The Belt and Road Initiative
is expected to have a huge impact on the mining sector. To see how,
I’m leaving the capital city, and embarking on an epic road trip
across the great steppes. My destination is Tavan Tolgoi, the world’s largest coal mine. At first, the drive is pleasant,
with light snowfall. Not quite what I am expecting
in the spring months of May. Then the snow got heavier, and now, I’m stuck in a snowstorm in the middle of the Gobi desert. The visibility has dropped down
to less than five metres now, and there are potholes
all over the road. I’m really hoping
we don’t get a flat tire, because if we do, we could possibly
be stuck out here in this snowstorm, and people have actually
died in that situation. So hopefully, we will reach
our destination soon. With no GPS, no phone reception, no paved roads, and no visibility, we soldier on. Eleven hours later,
we finally find our way. Shelter, at long last! That night, as I scramble for shelter, two people die in the snowstorm. The next day,
it is a winter wonderland, in the middle of the month of May. Look at all this powder
that has fallen overnight. It’s actually a little difficult
to try and walk through this. Here’s what I’ve driven
all this way for. Tavan Tolgoi,
the world’s largest coal mine. Until recently,
this area of southern Mongolia was one of the world’s
last great wilderness. A desert that is home
to gazelle, wild horses, and herders living
a traditional nomadic existence. Now, people refer to it
as “Mine-golia”. Just look at all of that out there! All that area is covered by snow
because of the storm last night. That was crazy weather
we had yesterday. Yes, that was unexpected weather
we had yesterday. It was a heavy snowstorm and that’s why the mining field
stopped temporarily. The road downslope can get slippery, creating dangerous conditions
which can lead to accidents. The mammoth dump trucks here
carry 240 tonnes of coal, that’s 240,000 kilograms
of load per truck! We certainly won’t want
those trucks losing grip on slippery snow-covered slopes. If it wasn’t for the weather, the operations would be
running around the clock? Yes, we operate 24 hours
with two shifts. In a year, how many times
does the site close down? It depends, but approximately, we get
about 10 days when we’d have to stop work because of such weather conditions. It’s not a full day of closure,
but hours of delay. As soon as we fix
all the roads and stuff, we get right back on. The pace of work here is unceasing, and that’s because this is
Mongolia’s biggest money earner. The coal here pays for schools,
hospitals, roads, and contributes to 6.5% of GDP. The country earned US$169.2 million from coal exports to China in the month of January 2019 alone. Definitely the biggest trucks
I’ve ever seen! -These can carry a load of 240 tonnes?
-Exactly! Massive! -It’s like a house on wheels!
-Yes! It’s huge! -They’re heading over to the mine pit now?
-Yes. The history of this mine
reflects the history of the country. It was started with the help
of the Soviet Union. At one point, mining rights
belonged to the Chinese. Now, the mine is nationalised, and has become a symbol
of Mongolian national pride. But it’s one thing to own the mine. The ultimate buyer
of all this coal is China. And if you’re wondering
what all of this has to do with you, consider this. Coking coal from here
is sent to China. This coal is not used for power stations,
but it is used to make steel. And steel is used to make cars,
roads, railways, skyscrapers and cities. It is exported all along
the New Silk Road from China… to Africa, to Indonesia, to Sri Lanka and beyond. So if there is Chinese-built
infrastructure in your neighbourhood, it’s possible that there’s a trace
of Mongolian coal in the supply chain. -You made all this for dinner?
-Yes. I have to say it looks very good. We have beef, we have
stir-fried mixed vegetables, even kimchi. And this looks like
some kind of dessert. We’re out in the middle of nowhere,
this is a hardship zone. So the company is keeping
all these workers well fed in order for them to stay happy. Is it tough working out here? Your work goes towards
the national budget, funding roads, building schools, how do you feel about that? China is the main buyer of your coal,
do you have any thoughts on that? China needs coal,
and Mongolia needs a buyer. This is the undisputed
win-win partnership that China so often talks about
in its rhetoric on the Silk Road. But how all that coal
is transported to China is an issue of contention
for Mongolians. And this is where the New Silk Road
will have a major impact. I’m travelling on the
China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, and it’s a corridor of rail, roads, economic projects, and mines. The biggest mine of all
is Tavan Tolgoi, believed to be the largest
coal deposit in the world. The biggest mine also presents one of the largest logistical
headaches in the world. Just how do you get all this coal
to the factories in China? This extraordinary footage shows an equally
extraordinary traffic jam, one that truck drivers from the mine
heading to the China border have to endure every day. It’s a journey that can stretch
from 2 to 15 days. And before the drivers
head onto that road, they wait here,
for the coal to get loaded. Since they will be
waiting here a long time, I’m sure they won’t mind
some company. It’s nice and cosy in here. Altansukh Chuluunbaatar
is a veteran trucker. He’s used to the long waits. His truck is equipped with cooking
facilities and stocked with meat. To live in such a confined space
must be tough. And is it dangerous
when you are out on the road? In the last three years, more than 50 lives
were lost on this coal road. The result of tired drivers,
bad weather, and poorly maintained roads. Better roads, and much more of them,
are urgently needed in Mongolia. This is where China’s
Belt and Road Initiative could make a world of difference
for the country. With the Belt and Road Initiative, there are plans to make a better road
to connect to the mine. Are you looking forward to that? What’s planned extends
far beyond the asphalt. There’ll even be railways to
connect the mine directly to China. This will be a key component of the China-Mongolia-Russia
economic corridor plan. How do you think
the Belt and Road Initiative will impact the operations
at the mine? There is much excitement amongst
miners, economists and business people over the BRI infrastructure projects. Better infrastructure means
mining operations can expand, with more revenue from coal. But one group of Mongolians
are less enthusiastic. These are the nomads,
who have lived here for generations, and whose vast pastures will now be criss-crossed
with new roads and rail lines. They have voiced
their unhappiness publicly, and have allied with
environmental groups. Today, I want to meet them
to hear their concerns. But they’re so hard to find. Trying to find a nomad family
out here is difficult. The snow is white,
their ger is white, it’s like trying to spot
the elusive snow leopard. The vast Gobi desert
stretches out before me, as I drive directionless
in search of my interviewees. I can’t imagine
what it’s like living out here in -50 degree Celsius winters, with no electricity and no heating. Even before meeting them, I’ve gained newfound respect
for the nomads, and their legendary ruggedness. At last, here’s a herd of goats, so that means there must be
some people nearby. Let’s drive around the hill
and see if there is anyone over there. Yes, behind this ridge. That’s a full bucket of milk. How many goats do you have? Out in the steppes,
animals are critical for survival. They provide food and water. Anything that harms the animals
impact the nomads, and the effects of mining on animals
are well documented. Thank you. It must sadden you to see
nature destroyed like that. Mining turns pastureland from this… to this. They suck up scarce water resources, and create clouds of dust
that cover nearby fields. Then there are the trucks, which drive all over the pasturelands,
in the absence of proper roads. It’s no wonder that nomads and
environmental groups are up in arms. With the New Silk Road,
there are plans to build more roads and a railway right through here, what are your thoughts on that? Yes. Let’s hope that the grasslands here
can be preserved. It’s hard to imagine
that the New Silk Road will be coming to a place
as remote as the South Gobi. But construction on the railway
is 70% complete, and will soon reach
the homes of these nomads. Chinese President Xi Jinping
told world leaders at the second Belt and Road
Conference in Beijing, that environmental protection must
underpin the Belt and Road Initiative. And here in the Gobi desert, there is new hope that
the BRI roads and railways will mitigate some of
the environmental problems that mining has already caused. There are various environmental
concerns around mining, of course. How does Mongolia balance the
difficult task of environmental protection and the need to grow your economy? What does the future hold
for these nomads? They don’t fit into
a market economy. They’re self-sufficient
and constantly on the move. They don’t spend money,
so they don’t need salaries. What will a Silk Road, and its promise
of investment and development, mean for them? And what about other Mongolians who guard the nomadic
way of life fiercely? I’m travelling along
China’s New Silk Road and I’ve arrived in the land
of the eternal blue sky. Mongolia is part of a new
three-nation economic corridor, connecting China,
Mongolia, and Russia. It’s one of six corridors
in the Belt and Road Initiative. And since Mongolia got plugged in, China has put money
into plenty of projects here, including a new sports stadium, highways, mines,
power plants, and more. Even then, some Mongolians haven’t
gotten over their old ill-feelings about their neighbour. Worse still,
Chinese people and projects, have become targets
of ultra-nationalist groups. Nationalism can take
extreme forms in Mongolia. There are even some
neo-Nazi groups here. One of them, called “Tsagaan Khass”, have talked about
their admiration of Hitler. They’ve even gone as far as
shaving the heads of Mongolian women who have Chinese boyfriends. Today, I’m going to meet
one nationalist group who is less extreme. They express their patriotism
through environmentalism. This is the office of
Standing Blue Mongol, well known for their attacks
on Chinese-owned mines, and protests against some
Chinese-owned companies, who they blame for
environmental problems. What does your organisation
stand for? How many members do you have? What kind of problems have these
Chinese-owned mines caused? What action has your group
taken against these companies? Do you feel any regret for your
acts of violence in the past? Mongolia is a supporter of
China’s Belt and Road Initiative, what are your views on that? Standing Blue Mongol is
unapologetically Sino-phobic. And there are several
other groups like them targeting the Chinese in Mongolia. Sinophobia is also
not unique to Mongolia. In my work on
China’s New Silk Road, I’ve seen Sino-phobic gangs
in Central Asia. In Kyrgyzstan,
Kyrk Choro targeted Chinese men and raided nightspots
which they visited. Similar gangs have also emerged
in Piraeus in Greece, targeting the Chinese, who have
bought over the national port. The guy I just interviewed
is a huge wrestler. I felt like a little boy next to him, and I have to say that I do feel sorry
for all the people he has roughed up. Would you say that these
ultra-nationalist groups have a significant following? Are the public
sympathetic towards them, or do they view them as outlaws? It varies on a case-by-case basis. In some cases, the people
were not following our standards. There were cases… where the environmental regulations
were very tough, and were violated by
Chinese-owned companies. However, it should be the state… who demands order. It’s not for some other group
to demand order, and therefore, it is illegal. I had the chance to meet with the group,
Standing Blue Mongol, and as we know, it seems that ultra-nationalist groups
are on the rise, globally. -Were they friendly to you?
-Yes, they were very friendly! That basically answers
the question, right? -Mongolians are…
-Disarm with charm, that’s what it is. They look like big guys with tattoos -and silver key chains…
-and teddy bear hearts. But when they appear in interviews
or when you engage them, they are just like
ordinary Mongolians. We are a young democracy,
and I think hate crimes are low. There are cases of hate crimes towards some Chinese
construction workers. We have seen them on social media
and there are police reports of it. But it’s not to a level that it becomes
a really serious problem. In general, would you say that
the Mongolian public is sympathetic towards the causes of these
ultra-nationalist groups, or would they view them as… outlaws or rabble-rousers? There are two very different camps. I think a good number of the public
supports environmental activists or nationalist groups. But there are also
Western-educated Mongolians who are metropolitan, who sees them as very barbaric. Are these groups
all Sino-phobic though? I think they are
generally Sino-phobic. When we conduct social polls
and we ask, “Who do you see as a friend? Which nation do you see
as Mongolia’s friend?” The Russians get about
70% to 80% approval ratings, thanks to the Soviet legacy,
the technology transfer, whereas… anti-Chinese sentiment
still runs strong. There are two sides to
China’s Silk Road in Mongolia. On one hand, there are expectations
that it will create jobs and lift economic growth. On the other hand, there are fears
that it might damage the environment and exploit Mongolia. Whatever the view is,
one thing’s clear, Mongolia is a fully-functioning
democracy with press freedom, and people are encouraged
to express their opinions. Social issues are not just debated
on TV and social media, they are also expressed
in pop culture. In our show, we don’t
just talk about politics, but we really try to capture
the soul of the country. And what better way to do that
than through music? This is Mongolia’s biggest band
at the moment. They’re called “The HU”,
and their music feels like a war cry. The HU’s videos have been viewed
more than 19 million times on YouTube, and they have been booked to perform
at festivals in Europe and USA. Fusing Mongolian traditional instruments
and throat singing with modern rock, their music is strangely hypnotic. I’m meeting the band today
to unravel the distinctive lyrics. We are “The HU”! You guys are known
as the “HU” band. What does “HU” mean? Can you tell me about some of
the unique instruments you use? Your music sounds
quite nationalistic. What are you trying to convey
in that song, “Wolf Totem”? What are your hopes
for your country? My time in Mongolia
is coming to an end. And I have come to respect
the rugged people here, and their long and proud history. Change is coming
with China’s Silk Road. And the government here is mindful
about the need of a sustainable Silk Road. A Silk Road
that will respect nature, and conserve Mongolia’s resources
for generations to come.

  • You can drop Mongolia. If Mongolia think that they do not want to trust China you can go ahead to look for the US. Get the US to buy your rare earth. See how you intend to export them. Russia won't allow you to pass through their border. China won't either. Only way is via air.

  • cna:百度的第一句话:由1968年3月18日在美国创立的东方新闻传播中心 ok 看到这我就直到是什么基调了

  • Fun facts:
    1. There are more ethnic mongols in Inner Mongolia than Outer Mongolia
    2. Inner Mongolia's GDP per capita is 3 times higher than that of Outer Mongolia.

  • Mongolia plus Tannu Tuva (present day Tuva Oblast in Russia) belongs to the People's Republic of China and the Chinese people.

  • Ponder this, by 2050, China's economy would be larger than that of USA, EU, Japan and India combined.. according to World Bank and IMF. By then USA would be like the UK of today while Russia to the Chinese would be like UK to the US, a subservient client state. China can just walk into Ulan Bator and hoist the Five Star Red Banner, while the rest of the world would be congratulating the Chinese for "Mongolia's liberation" !

  • Tibetans, Taiwanese, Uyghurs, Manchus and Mongolians are all mandated by heaven to be Chinese. Nobody can go against the will of heaven! Mongolia shall one day be reunited with their motherland China! It is the wish of 1.4 billion people

  • Be wise and GET RID OF OLD PREJUDICE …all the connectivity with the World will be better for this Country !!! A small , poor ,
    underdeveloped nation like Mongolia have NOT much choice …In this World BEGER'S can't choose and that's why CHINA
    is buying COAL from Australia ( which by human + business sense , it should have been Mongolia ) !!!

  • I thought Mongolians had their own script, like in China where Inner Mongolians write Mongolian in a top-down traditional script, you can see it along the characters of the Lingua Franca of China, Mandarin.

    In Inner Mongolia Genghis Khan is a big deal also, there's a festival honouring a symbolic mausoleum. This province is the legacy still remaining of the Yuan Dynasty where their accession to China came after conquering China, today they live in peace along eachother.

    ❤🇨🇳 China🇨🇳❤🇲🇳Mongolia🇲🇳❤🇷🇺Russia 🇷🇺❤

  • China has no ill feelings towards Mongolia or Russia, they consider them friends.

    Mongolia conquered China and became part of it.

    Tzarist Russia forced on China the relinquish of North Manchuria on the Qing Dynasty, the Qing were made to part with their land of origin.

    Yet China today has no resentment what so ever, they welcome both their northern neighbors Russia and Mongolia with open arms. I think we can learn from China something about forgiveness.

    ❤🇨🇳 China🇨🇳❤🇲🇳Mongolia🇲🇳❤🇷🇺Russia 🇷🇺❤

  • The ecological spirit of Mongolians is admirable and commendable, it is strikingly powerfully charged just as is Xi Jinping's thought on a green ecological society where nature is a supremely invaluable asset.

    If Mongolia and China unite their ecological will, there's no telling what lush nature and ecological benefits could be gained. China's efforts to control the desert have been successful and they are willing to share their experiences with Mongolia as I believe they have.

    Mining is a dirty business but China's commitment to nature is self evident and soon the Artificial intelligence, ecological solutions and 5G development, etc will solve many of the downsides of mining in Mongolia as they have in China.

    Long live the friendship between the Great Nations of 🇲🇳Mongolia, 🇨🇳China and 🇷🇺Russia!

    ❤🇨🇳 China🇨🇳❤🇲🇳Mongolia🇲🇳❤🇷🇺Russia 🇷🇺❤

  • @CNA, and the host of this episode,
    At 04:00 min or so, "… that mongols rule all of China and that lasted for over 100 years…."
    It is ERRONEOUS. Mongols ruled China for 99 years, when the last Mongolian Emperor was driven out of China.
    Go do your study a bit more, if no other causes led to such erroneous statement.
    Films and narratives do not necessarily make a documentary. More often than not, they make noise and nuisance at their best, while tactless and insidious propaganda when deliberate and covert planting of misleading information to incite the worse elements of human nature is intended and orchestrated.

  • do you have common sense? when people see their country are being abused and their government is corrupt so they have no choice but to form a group and hopefully they will have support from their people. if the debt trap does not exist then we don't have to worry about it but it does exit and look what happened to African countries that have dealt with China.

  • Very interesting point to blame China and bri for their environmental damage. But it's largely the failure of their environmental policy.

    In fact their environment was worsening well before the bri existed, it's not just mining but also overgrazing. This theory can be backed up by publicly available satellite images, while the Inner Mongolia has similar climate to them, it looks greener. More than ten years ago, there were already reports of starving wolves crossed the border to China just to find food.

    Also many sandstorm in northern China (and north east Asia in general) are originated in Outer Mongolia. In this sense, China has incentives to improve outermongol environment.

    In the video, the crews drove hours away from the mines on the grassland with no roads to met the herdswoman. She claimed she (and her family, maybe a small family) owns over 1,000 sheep and goats. The animals were eating on the grassland with no grass. This might be an evidence of unsustainable overgrazing.

    Talking about their anti china sentiment. Hatred is just a human design flaw. It's in fact the soviet who suppressed them in the early 20th century. But it turned out they fell in love with soviet. Looked at their language, it's completely "romanized", while the actual mongol is better preserved in china.

  • debt trap? thats such a lies made up by west against china, 98.8% of debt in developing countries all combined are debts held by world bank which is west controlled, and america and europe govertment loans, west set up debt trap with highest interest to all poor countries in last 60 years in order to control the world, shameless

  • how shameless west is , debt? world banks controlled by west loaned 95% of total world loans, so on west logic, west is setting up debt trap to world, it is fact today, all devleloping countries in wrold owes 98% of debt to west, because west is setting them up

  • The world has move forward from Western power, China with Russia is a new world order. China has arrive and we should embrace and learn how to live with china from Asia. Mongolia and Eurasia will benefit greatly from Obor china is connecting the world. West are just jeolous and does not know what to do rather than criticism.

  • You cannot get rich by herding. Unless you have a big market like China so they can sell the meat and dairy products inside the country. It is difficult to balance the Development and prosevation.


  • As long no countries force their values or beliefs onto other countries, most people would welcome the change. Whatever conflict is are things we don't understand and fear of being forced into this 'inhumane values'

  • HU cares? Sadly you didn't go to the inside Mongolia so you can find answers all those issues how to make them right, but anyway very good Episode and great job!

  • The Mongols are fking epic.
    "no one ever conquers Russia in winter" UNLESS UR THE MONGOLS
    "no nomadic tribe ever held this much power" UNLESS UR THE MONGOLS
    and yes, as a Chinese person, mad respects for the Mongols for scaring us enough to build the great wall over like centuries and then proceed to successfully invade us anyways and creating the Yuan dynasty.

  • 'Others still harbour distrust of China' lol reporting like agenda media. Of course, u won't find everyone in any country trusting their own country too, cos u got religions, etnicities, right left centre wings politics & crackpot extremists. Just my 2 cts

  • By saying the Great Wall of China was built to keep Mongolian out of China is not correct. When the Great Wall was built, the Mongolians were not even exist.

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